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Instructor’s Test Bank (TB) for The Adolescent Development Relationships and Culture 13th Edition by Dolgin ISBN 0205731368 9780205731367 [DOWNLOAD INSTANT & ANONYMOUSLY]

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Test bank Solutions for The Adolescent Development Relationships and Culture 13th Edition by Dolgin ISBN 0205731368 9780205731367  INSTRUCTOR TEST BANK SOLUTIONS VERSION

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Table of Contents

Table of Contents
FEATURES
PREFACE
CHAPTER 1 THE SOCIAL CONTEXT OF ADOLESCENCE
APPROACHES TO STUDYING ADOLESCENCE
THE CHANGING FACE OF AMERICAN ADOLESCENCE
OUR EVOLVING SOCIETY
CROSS-CULTURAL CONCERNS The Major Issues Facing the World’s Adolescents
THE EVOLVING PROLONGATION OF ADOLESCENCE
EVOLVING COMMUNICATION AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES
The Internet
Cell Phones
EVOLVING WORLD OF WORK AND CONSUMPTION
Longer Workdays
Working Women
Adolescent Employment
Adolescent Consumption
EVOLVING EDUCATIONAL IMPERATIVES
Educational Attainment
Embracing the New Technology
Innovations in Career Education
EVOLVING FAMILY CONSTELLATIONS
Changes in Marriage and Parenthood
Changes in Family Dynamics
THE EVOLVING SEXUAL LANDSCAPE
Positive Effects of the Sexual Revolution
Negative Effects of the Sexual Revolution
EVOLVING SAFETY CONCERNS
Violent Crime
Violence in Society
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Computer Games
Violence in the Home
Violent Deaths
UNDERSTANDING ADOLESCENCE: RESEARCH METHODS
Correlations
True vs. Quasi-Experiments
Research Designs that Measure Developmental Change
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Teens Who Kill Family Members
CHAPTER 2 ADOLESCENTS IN THEORETICAL CONTEXT
BIOLOGICAL VIEWS OF ADOLESCENCE
G. Stanley Hall: Sturm und Drang
Arnold Gesell: Spiral Growth Patterns
PSYCHOANALYTICAL AND PSYCHOSOCIAL VIEWS OF ADOLESCENCE
Sigmund Freud: Individuation
Anna Freud: Defense Mechanisms
Erik Erikson: Ego Identity
COGNITIVE VIEWS OF ADOLESCENCE
Jean Piaget: Adaptation and Equilibrium
Lev Vygotsky: Social Influences on Cognition
SOCIAL-COGNITIVE LEARNING VIEW OF ADOLESCENCE
Albert Bandura: Social Learning Theory
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Scaffolding in Course-Related Bulletin Boards
Social-Cognitive Theory
THE IMPACT OF CULTURE ON ADOLESCENTS
Robert Havighurst: Developmental Tasks
Kurt Lewin: Field Theory
Urie Bronfenbrenner: Ecological Systems Theory
Margaret Mead and Ruth Benedict: Anthropological Views
PERSONAL ISSUES When Do Adolescents Become Adults?
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT How Troubled Are Adolescents?
CHAPTER 3 ADOLESCENT DIVERSITY: SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS AND ETHNICITY
ADOLESCENTS OF LOW SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS
Limitations of Low Socioeconomic Status
Cycle of Poverty and Deprivation
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Those Who Make It
MINORITY ADOLESCENTS
African American Adolescents
Latino Adolescents
Native American Adolescents
Asian American Adolescents
CROSS-CULTURAL CONCERNS An Example of Cross-Cultural Conflict — Chinese American Adolescent Dating
IMMIGRANTS AND REFUGEES
Southeast Asian Refugee Experience
CROSS-CULTURAL CONCERNS Comparison of Traditional Asian Values and Urban Industrial Values
CHAPTER 4 BODY ISSUES: PHYSICAL GROWTH AND HEALTH-RELATED BEHAVIORS
BIOCHEMICAL BASIS OF PUBERTY
The Hypothalamus
The Pituitary Gland
The Gonads
The Adrenal Glands
Sex Hormone Regulation in Males
Sex Hormone Regulation in Females
MATURATION AND FUNCTIONS OF MALE SEX ORGANS
Spermatogenesis
The Developing Penis
PERSONAL ISSUES Use of Steroids by Athletes
The Cowper’s Glands
Nocturnal Emissions
MATURATION AND FUNCTIONS OF FEMALE SEX ORGANS
The Developing Vagina
Changes in the Vulva and Uterus
Ovarian Changes
Menarche and the Menstrual Cycle
PERSONAL ISSUES Stress, Family Discord, and Pubertal Timing
Menstrual Concerns
DEVELOPMENT OF SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Menstrual Irregularity in Athletes
Males
Females
In Their Own Words
Results of Sexual Maturation
GROWTH IN HEIGHT AND WEIGHT
Growth Trends
Determinants of Height
Other Physical Changes
BODY IMAGE
Physical Attractiveness
Body Types and Ideals
PERSONAL ISSUES Plastic surgery among Adolescents
EARLY AND LATE MATURATION
Early-Maturing Boys
Late-Maturing Boys
Early-Maturing Girls
Late-Maturing Girls
HEALTH STATUS
Mortality
PERSONAL ISSUES Automobile Casualties
Health Decisions
Adolescent Health in the Third World
HEALTH CONCERNS
Nutrition
Exercise
Obesity
In Their Own Words
Sleep
Acne
CHAPTER 5 COGNITVE DEVELOMENT: IMPROVEMENTS IN THINKING, REASONING, AND DECISION MAKING
PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
Sensorimotor Stage
Preoperational Stage
Concrete Operational Stage
Formal Operational Stage
EFFECTS OF ADOLESCENT THOUGHT ON PERSONALITY AND BEHAVIOR
Idealism
Hypocrisy
Pseudostupidity
Egocentrism
In Their Own Words
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Is a Personal Fable Entirely a Bad Thing?
Introspection
CRITIQUE OF PIAGET’S THEORY
Age of Onset and Universality
Beyond Formal Operations
WHAT CAN WE RETAIN FROM FORMAL OPERATIONS?
INFORMATION PROCESSING
Steps in Information Processing
Processing Speed
Higher-Order Thought Processes
The Role of Knowledge
DECISION MAKING
The Process
Barriers to Good Decision Making
Risky Decision Making
EPISTEMOLOGICAL UNDERSTANDING
In Their Own Words
BRAIN DEVELOPMENT DURING ADOLESCENCE
ASSESSING COGNITION
Theories of Intelligence
Intelligence Testing
Factors Influencing Test Results
Uses and Misuses of IQ Tests
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Intellectually Different Adolescents
ACHIEVEMENT TESTS
The Scholastic Reasoning Test (SAT)
CHAPTER 6 SELF-CONCEPT, IDENTITY, ETHNICITY, AND GENDER
SELF-CONCEPT AND SELF-ESTEEM
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT: Does This Generation Have Higher Self-Esteem?
Importance of Having a Good Self-Concept
PERSONAL ISSUES Perfectionism
Self-Esteem
Development of a Positive Self-Concept
In Their Own Words
Changes in Self-Concept during Adolescence
IDENTITY
Seven Conflicts
Identity Status
In Their Own Words
Identity as a Process
Ethnic Identity
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT The Effects of Maternal Ethnic Socialization on Sons and Daughters
GENDER
Biological Sex
Cognitive-Developmental Theories
Societal Influences
Androgyny
Gender in Adolescence

CHAPTER 7 THE DEVELOPMENT OF MORAL VALUES
COGNITIVE-SOCIALIZATION THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT
Piaget and Children’s Moral Development
Kohlberg and Levels of Moral Development
Gilligan and Sex Differences in Moral Reasoning
In Their Own Words
The Social-Cognitive Domain Approach to Moral Reasoning
Moral Reasoning and Prosocial Behavior
FAMILY FACTORS AND MORAL LEARNING
The Family’s Role
EXTRAFAMILIAL INFLUENCES ON MORALITY
Peers
Religion
In Their Own Words
Television
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Adolescents’ Views of Political and Human Rights
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Why Do We Like Scary Media?
Moral Education
PERSONAL ISSUES Academic Cheating in College
CHAPTER 8 RELATIONSHIPS WITH FAMILY MEMBERS
PARENTING ADOLESCENTS
What Kind of Parents Do Adolescents Want?
Connection
Trust
Attachment Style
Autonomy
Regulation
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Is It OK to Mislead One’s Parents?
PERSONAL ISSUES Corporal Punishment
PARENT-ADOLESCENT TENSION
Differences in Outlook
Focus of Conflict
Variables Affecting Conflict
Conflicts with Parents versus Conflicts with Peers
Results of Conflict
RELATIONSHIPS WITH OTHER FAMILY MEMBERS
Adolescent-Sibling Relationships
Relationships with Other Relatives
MALTREATMENT
Physical Abuse
Sexual Abuse
Incest
Neglect

CHAPTER 9 DIFFERENT FAMILY PATTERNS
WITH WHOM DO AMERICAN ADOLESCENTS LIVE?
CROSS-CULTURAL CONCERNS Extended Families
DIVORCE AND ADOLESCENTS
Attitudes toward Divorce
Short-Term Emotional Reactions
Long-Term Effects
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Adolescent Children Raised by Gay and Lesbian Parents
Factors Influencing the Effects of Divorce
SINGLE-PARENT/GRANDPARENT-HEADED FAMILIES
In Their Own Words
Single-Parent Families Resulting from Parental Death
In Their Own Words
EFFECTS OF BEING RAISED IN A ONE-PARENT FAMILY
Development of Masculinity/Femininity
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Single Fathers
Influences on School Performance, Achievement, and Vocation
BLENDED FAMILIES
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Open and Closed Adoptions
PERSONAL ISSUES Stepparents versus Natural Parents
ADOPTED ADOLESCENTS

CHAPTER 10 BEING A MEMBER OF THE ADOLESCENT SUBCULTURE: ACTIVITIES AND INTERACTIONS WITH PEERS
ADOLESCENT CULTURE AND SOCIETY
ADOLESCENT SOCIETIES
Formal Systems
Informal Systems
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Two Notable Youth Subcultures
THE DARKER SIDE OF PEER INTERACTIONS: BULLYING
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Cyberbullying
FRIENDSHIP
PERSONAL ISSUES Being Alone versus Being Lonely
Loneliness
Family and Peer Relationships
Age Changes in Adolescent Friendships
In Their Own Words
GROUP ACCEPTANCE AND POPULARITY
What Does It Take to Be Popular?
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Friendship Expectations
Routes to Social Acceptance
HETEROSOCIALITY
Psychosocial Development
Cross-sex Friendships
Adolescent Love and Crushes
Loss of Love
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Gay and Lesbian Adolescents’ Romantic Relationships
DATING
The Development of Dating
Violence
NONMARITAL COHABITATION
Incidence
Meanings Attached to Cohabitation
Cohabitation versus Dating
Cohabitation versus Marriage
Effects on Subsequent Marriage
ADOLESCENT MARRIAGE
Trends and Incidence
A Profile of the Young Married
Reasons for Adolescent Marriage
Adjustments and Problems
Early Marriage and Education
MATERIAL CONCERNS OF ADOLESCENT CULTURE
Adolescents as Consumer Forces
PERSONAL ISSUES Adolescent Credit Card Debt
Clothing
Automobiles
Cell Phones
Computers and the Internet
PERSONAL ISSUES Internet Addiction
NONMATERIAL CONCERNS OF ADOLESCENT CULTURE
Slang
Music

CHAPTER 11 SEXUAL BEHAVIORS
CHANGING ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR
Premarital Sexual Behavior
CROSS-CULTURAL CONCERNS Adolescent Sexual Behavior in Preindustrial Societies
Correlates
Other Mutual Sexual Behaviors
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Just How Common Is Oral Sex?
Masturbation
SEX AND ITS MEANING
What Are Adolescents Seeking?
Sexual Pluralism
Gender Differences in Sexual Ethics
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Hooking Up on College Campuses
Sexual Aggression
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT The Nature of Rape
CONTRACEPTIVES AND SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES
Use of Contraceptives among Adolescents
Why Contraceptives Are Not Used
Should Adolescents Have Contraceptives?
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
AIDS
PERSONAL ISSUES How Much Do You Know about AIDS?
UNWED PREGNANCY AND ABORTION
Incidence of Teen Pregnancy
Causation Theories
Pregnancy-Resolution Decisions
Adolescent Mothers
Adolescent Fathers
GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTH
Determinants of Sexual Orientation
CROSS-CULTURAL CONCERNS Gay Adolescents from Racial/Ethnic Minority Groups
Adjustment
In Their Own Words
SEX KNOWLEDGE AND SEX EDUCATION
Sources of Sex Information
The Role of Parents
PERSONAL ISSUES Adolescent Sexual Folklore
The Role of Schools

CHAPTER 12 EDUCATION AND SCHOOL
TRENDS IN U.S. EDUCATION
Traditionalists versus Progressives
Rise of Progressive Education
Sputnik and After
1960s and 1970s
1980s
1990s
Early Twenty-First Century
MIDDLE SCHOOLS
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Tracking
CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD SCHOOLS
Size
Atmosphere
Teachers
Curriculum
CROSS-CULTURAL CONCERNS Japanese Education
PRIVATE VERSUS PUBLIC SCHOOLS
ACHIEVEMENT AND DROPPING OUT
Enrollment Figures
Who Drops Out and Why
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Factories of Failure?
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT School Violence
Dropouts and Employment
PERSONAL ISSUES Is It Worthwhile to Get a College Degree?

CHAPTER 13 WORK AND VOCATION
MOTIVES FOR CHOICE
THEORIES OF VOCATIONAL CHOICE
Ginzberg’s Compromise with Reality Theory
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Developmental-Contextual Concepts
Holland’s Occupational Environment Theory
Lent ’s Social Cognitive Career Theory
PEOPLE INFLUENCING VOCATIONAL CHOICE
Parents
Peers
School Personnel
GENDER ROLES AND VOCATIONAL CHOICE
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Why So Few Women Scientists?
OTHER CRUCIAL DETERMINANTS OF VOCATIONAL CHOICE
Aptitudes and Special Abilities
Interests
CROSS-CULTURAL CONCERNS The School-to-Work Transition for American versus European Adolescents
Job Opportunities
Salary
SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS
Familiarity
Social Status and Aspirations
In Their Own Words
Race/Ethnicity and Aspirations
YOUTH EMPLOYMENT
Working for Wages
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Work, Military, or College?
Volunteerism
In Their Own Words
ADOLESCENTS AND UNEMPLOYMENT
Numbers of Unemployed Youths
Causes of Unemployment
CROSS-CULTURAL CONCERNS International Perspectives on Youth Employment
CAREER EDUCATION

CHAPTER 14 ADOLESCENT STRESS AND ALIENATION
RUNNING AWAY
Classes of Runaways
Reasons for Running Away
PERSONAL ISSUES Preventing Teens from Running and Finding Them When They Do
Throwaways
Life on the Street
Help for Runaways
Worldwide Scope
DEPRESSION AND SUICIDE
Depression
Suicide
PERSONAL ISSUES Why Are Adolescent Girls More Likely to Be Depressed Than Adolescent Boys?
PERSONAL ISSUES Preventing Suicide
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT A Rapid Rise in Self-Mutilating Behavior
In Their Own Words
EATING DISORDERS
Anorexia Nervosa
Bulimia
JUVENILE DELINQUENCY
In Their Own Words
Incidence of Delinquency
Causes of Delinquency
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Conduct Disorder, ODD, and ADHD
Juvenile Gangs
The Juvenile Justice System
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT The Case That Changed Juvenile Court
The Restorative Justice Movement

CHAPTER 15 SUBSTANCE ABUSE, ADDICTION, AND DEPENDENCY
DRUG USE AND ABUSE
Physical Addiction and Psychological Dependency
Patterns and Intensity of Drug Use
Types of Drugs
PERSONAL ISSUES Ecstasy
Frequency of Adolescent Drug Use
Reasons for First Drug Use
Demographic Differences
Compulsive Drug Use
Prevention and Treatment
CROSS-CULTURAL CONCERNS Substance Use by Native American Adolescents
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Families of Drug Abusers
In Their Own Words
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Project DARE
TOBACCO AND SMOKING
Incidence of Tobacco Use
Reasons Adolescents Start Smoking
Effects of Cigarette Advertising
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT The Harmful Effects of Legal Drugs
Reasons Adolescents Continue Smoking
Smokeless Tobacco
Keeping Adolescents from Starting
ALCOHOL AND EXCESSIVE DRINKING
Incidence of Alcohol Use
Reasons for Drinking during Adolescence
PERSONAL ISSUES Drinking on College Campuses
Adult and Peer Influences
Physical Consequences of Alcohol Use
Drinking in Young Adulthood
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
PERSONAL ISSUES Adolescent Children of Alcoholic Parents
EPILOGUE
POSITIVE YOUTH DEVELOPMENT
EMERGING ADULTHOOD
YOUNG ADULTHOOD
GLOSSARY
BIBLIOGRAPHY
PHOTO CREDITS
INDEX

Table of Contents

Table of Contents 

 

FEATURES

 

PREFACE

 

CHAPTER 1 THE SOCIAL CONTEXT OF ADOLESCENCE

APPROACHES TO STUDYING ADOLESCENCE

THE CHANGING FACE OF AMERICAN ADOLESCENCE
OUR EVOLVING SOCIETY

CROSS-CULTURAL CONCERNS The Major Issues Facing the World’s Adolescents
THE EVOLVING PROLONGATION OF ADOLESCENCE
EVOLVING COMMUNICATION AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES

The Internet
Cell Phones
EVOLVING WORLD OF WORK AND CONSUMPTION
Longer Workdays

Working Women
Adolescent Employment
Adolescent Consumption
EVOLVING EDUCATIONAL IMPERATIVES
Educational Attainment

Embracing the New Technology
Innovations in Career Education
EVOLVING FAMILY CONSTELLATIONS
Changes in Marriage and Parenthood
Changes in Family Dynamics
THE EVOLVING SEXUAL LANDSCAPE
Positive Effects of the Sexual Revolution
Negative Effects of the Sexual Revolution
EVOLVING SAFETY CONCERNS
Violent Crime
Violence in Society
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Computer Games
Violence in the Home
Violent Deaths
UNDERSTANDING ADOLESCENCE: RESEARCH METHODS
Correlations
True vs. Quasi-Experiments
Research Designs that Measure Developmental Change
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Teens Who Kill Family Members

 

CHAPTER 2 ADOLESCENTS IN THEORETICAL CONTEXT
BIOLOGICAL VIEWS OF ADOLESCENCE
G. Stanley Hall: Sturm und Drang

Arnold Gesell: Spiral Growth Patterns
PSYCHOANALYTICAL AND PSYCHOSOCIAL VIEWS OF ADOLESCENCE
Sigmund Freud: Individuation
Anna Freud: Defense Mechanisms
Erik Erikson: Ego Identity
COGNITIVE VIEWS OF ADOLESCENCE
Jean Piaget: Adaptation and Equilibrium

Lev Vygotsky: Social Influences on Cognition
SOCIAL-COGNITIVE LEARNING VIEW OF ADOLESCENCE
Albert Bandura: Social Learning Theory

RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Scaffolding in Course-Related Bulletin Boards
Social-Cognitive Theory
THE IMPACT OF CULTURE ON ADOLESCENTS
Robert Havighurst: Developmental Tasks
Kurt Lewin: Field Theory
Urie Bronfenbrenner: Ecological Systems Theory
Margaret Mead and Ruth Benedict: Anthropological Views
PERSONAL ISSUES When Do Adolescents Become Adults?
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT How Troubled Are Adolescents?

CHAPTER 3 ADOLESCENT DIVERSITY: SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS AND ETHNICITY
ADOLESCENTS OF LOW SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS
Limitations of Low Socioeconomic Status

Cycle of Poverty and Deprivation
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Those Who Make It
MINORITY ADOLESCENTS
African American Adolescents
Latino Adolescents
Native American Adolescents
Asian American Adolescents
CROSS-CULTURAL CONCERNS An Example of Cross-Cultural Conflict — Chinese American Adolescent Dating
IMMIGRANTS AND REFUGEES
Southeast Asian Refugee Experience

CROSS-CULTURAL CONCERNS Comparison of Traditional Asian Values and Urban Industrial Values

 

CHAPTER 4 BODY ISSUES: PHYSICAL GROWTH AND HEALTH-RELATED BEHAVIORS

BIOCHEMICAL BASIS OF PUBERTY
The Hypothalamus
The Pituitary Gland
The Gonads
The Adrenal Glands
Sex Hormone Regulation in Males
Sex Hormone Regulation in Females
MATURATION AND FUNCTIONS OF MALE SEX ORGANS
Spermatogenesis
The Developing Penis
PERSONAL ISSUES Use of Steroids by Athletes
The Cowper’s Glands
Nocturnal Emissions
MATURATION AND FUNCTIONS OF FEMALE SEX ORGANS
The Developing Vagina
Changes in the Vulva and Uterus
Ovarian Changes
Menarche and the Menstrual Cycle
PERSONAL ISSUES Stress, Family Discord, and Pubertal Timing
Menstrual Concerns
DEVELOPMENT OF SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Menstrual Irregularity in Athletes
Males
Females
In Their Own Words
Results of Sexual Maturation
GROWTH IN HEIGHT AND WEIGHT
Growth Trends

Determinants of Height
Other Physical Changes
BODY IMAGE
Physical Attractiveness
Body Types and Ideals
PERSONAL ISSUES Plastic surgery among Adolescents
EARLY AND LATE MATURATION
Early-Maturing Boys

Late-Maturing Boys
Early-Maturing Girls
Late-Maturing Girls
HEALTH STATUS

Mortality
PERSONAL ISSUES Automobile Casualties
Health Decisions
Adolescent Health in the Third World
HEALTH CONCERNS
Nutrition

Exercise
Obesity
In Their Own Words
Sleep
Acne

CHAPTER 5 COGNITVE DEVELOMENT: IMPROVEMENTS IN THINKING, REASONING, AND DECISION MAKING
PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
Sensorimotor Stage

Preoperational Stage
Concrete Operational Stage
Formal Operational Stage
EFFECTS OF ADOLESCENT THOUGHT ON PERSONALITY AND BEHAVIOR
Idealism
Hypocrisy
Pseudostupidity
Egocentrism
In Their Own Words
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Is a Personal Fable Entirely a Bad Thing?
Introspection
CRITIQUE OF PIAGET’S THEORY
Age of Onset  and Universality
Beyond Formal Operations
WHAT CAN WE RETAIN FROM FORMAL OPERATIONS?
INFORMATION PROCESSING
Steps in Information Processing
Processing Speed
Higher-Order Thought Processes
The Role of Knowledge
DECISION MAKING
The Process
Barriers to Good Decision Making
Risky Decision Making
EPISTEMOLOGICAL UNDERSTANDING
In Their Own Words
BRAIN DEVELOPMENT DURING ADOLESCENCE
ASSESSING COGNITION

Theories of Intelligence
Intelligence Testing
Factors Influencing Test Results
Uses and Misuses of IQ Tests
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Intellectually Different Adolescents
ACHIEVEMENT TESTS
The Scholastic Reasoning Test (SAT)

CHAPTER 6 SELF-CONCEPT, IDENTITY, ETHNICITY, AND GENDER
SELF-CONCEPT AND SELF-ESTEEM

RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT: Does This Generation Have Higher Self-Esteem?
Importance of Having a Good Self-Concept
PERSONAL ISSUES Perfectionism
Self-Esteem
Development of a Positive Self-Concept
In Their Own Words
Changes in Self-Concept during Adolescence
IDENTITY
Seven Conflicts

Identity Status
In Their Own Words
Identity as a Process
Ethnic Identity
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT The Effects of Maternal Ethnic Socialization on Sons and Daughters
GENDER
Biological Sex
Cognitive-Developmental Theories
Societal Influences
Androgyny
Gender in Adolescence

CHAPTER 7 THE DEVELOPMENT OF MORAL VALUES
COGNITIVE-SOCIALIZATION THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT

Piaget and Children’s Moral Development
Kohlberg and Levels of Moral Development
Gilligan and Sex Differences in Moral Reasoning
In Their Own Words
The Social-Cognitive Domain Approach to Moral Reasoning
Moral Reasoning and Prosocial Behavior
FAMILY FACTORS AND MORAL LEARNING
The Family’s Role
EXTRAFAMILIAL INFLUENCES ON MORALITY
Peers
Religion
In Their Own Words
Television
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Adolescents’ Views of Political and Human Rights
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Why Do We Like Scary Media?
Moral Education
PERSONAL ISSUES Academic Cheating in College

CHAPTER 8  RELATIONSHIPS WITH FAMILY MEMBERS
PARENTING ADOLESCENTS
What Kind of Parents Do Adolescents Want?

Connection
Trust
Attachment Style
Autonomy
Regulation
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Is It OK to Mislead One’s Parents?
PERSONAL ISSUES Corporal Punishment
PARENT-ADOLESCENT TENSION
Differences in Outlook
Focus of Conflict
Variables Affecting Conflict
Conflicts with Parents versus Conflicts with Peers
Results of Conflict
RELATIONSHIPS WITH OTHER FAMILY MEMBERS
Adolescent-Sibling Relationships

Relationships with Other Relatives
MALTREATMENT
Physical Abuse
Sexual Abuse
Incest
Neglect

CHAPTER 9  DIFFERENT FAMILY PATTERNS
WITH WHOM DO AMERICAN ADOLESCENTS LIVE?
CROSS-CULTURAL CONCERNS Extended Families

DIVORCE AND ADOLESCENTS
Attitudes toward Divorce
Short-Term Emotional Reactions
Long-Term Effects
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Adolescent Children Raised by Gay and Lesbian Parents
Factors Influencing the Effects of Divorce
SINGLE-PARENT/GRANDPARENT-HEADED FAMILIES
In Their Own Words
Single-Parent Families Resulting from Parental Death
In Their Own Words
EFFECTS OF BEING RAISED IN A ONE-PARENT FAMILY
Development of Masculinity/Femininity
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Single Fathers
Influences on School Performance, Achievement, and Vocation
BLENDED FAMILIES
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Open and Closed Adoptions
PERSONAL ISSUES Stepparents versus Natural Parents
ADOPTED ADOLESCENTS

CHAPTER 10 BEING A MEMBER OF THE ADOLESCENT SUBCULTURE: ACTIVITIES AND INTERACTIONS WITH PEERS
ADOLESCENT CULTURE AND SOCIETY
ADOLESCENT SOCIETIES

Formal Systems
Informal Systems
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Two Notable Youth Subcultures
THE DARKER SIDE OF PEER INTERACTIONS: BULLYING
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Cyberbullying

FRIENDSHIP
PERSONAL ISSUES Being Alone versus Being Lonely
Loneliness
Family and Peer Relationships
Age Changes in Adolescent Friendships
In Their Own Words
GROUP ACCEPTANCE AND POPULARITY
What Does It Take to Be Popular?
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Friendship Expectations
Routes to Social Acceptance
HETEROSOCIALITY
Psychosocial Development
Cross-sex Friendships
Adolescent Love and Crushes
Loss of Love
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Gay and Lesbian Adolescents’ Romantic Relationships
DATING
The Development of Dating
Violence
NONMARITAL COHABITATION
Incidence

Meanings Attached to Cohabitation
Cohabitation versus Dating
Cohabitation versus Marriage
Effects on Subsequent Marriage
ADOLESCENT MARRIAGE
Trends and Incidence
A Profile of the Young Married
Reasons for Adolescent Marriage
Adjustments and Problems
Early Marriage and Education
MATERIAL CONCERNS OF ADOLESCENT CULTURE
Adolescents as Consumer Forces
PERSONAL ISSUES  Adolescent Credit Card Debt
Clothing
Automobiles
Cell Phones
Computers and the Internet
PERSONAL ISSUES Internet Addiction
NONMATERIAL CONCERNS OF ADOLESCENT CULTURE
Slang
Music

CHAPTER 11  SEXUAL BEHAVIORS
CHANGING ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR

Premarital Sexual Behavior
CROSS-CULTURAL CONCERNS Adolescent Sexual Behavior in Preindustrial Societies
Correlates
Other Mutual Sexual Behaviors
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Just How Common Is Oral Sex?
Masturbation
SEX AND ITS MEANING
What Are Adolescents Seeking?
Sexual Pluralism
Gender Differences in Sexual Ethics
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Hooking Up on College Campuses
Sexual Aggression
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT The Nature of Rape
CONTRACEPTIVES AND SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES
Use of Contraceptives among Adolescents
Why Contraceptives Are Not Used
Should Adolescents Have Contraceptives?
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
AIDS
PERSONAL ISSUES How Much Do You Know about AIDS?
UNWED PREGNANCY AND ABORTION
Incidence of Teen Pregnancy
Causation Theories
Pregnancy-Resolution Decisions
Adolescent Mothers
Adolescent Fathers
GAY AND LESBIAN YOUTH
Determinants of Sexual Orientation
CROSS-CULTURAL CONCERNS Gay Adolescents from Racial/Ethnic Minority Groups
Adjustment
In Their Own Words
SEX KNOWLEDGE AND SEX EDUCATION
Sources of Sex Information
The Role of Parents
PERSONAL ISSUES Adolescent Sexual Folklore
The Role of Schools


CHAPTER 12 EDUCATION AND SCHOOL
TRENDS IN U.S. EDUCATION

Traditionalists versus Progressives
Rise of Progressive Education
Sputnik and After
1960s and 1970s
1980s
1990s
Early Twenty-First Century
MIDDLE SCHOOLS
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Tracking
CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD SCHOOLS
Size
Atmosphere
Teachers
Curriculum
CROSS-CULTURAL CONCERNS Japanese Education
PRIVATE VERSUS PUBLIC SCHOOLS
ACHIEVEMENT AND DROPPING OUT

Enrollment Figures
Who Drops Out and Why
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Factories of Failure?
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT School Violence
Dropouts and Employment
PERSONAL ISSUES Is It Worthwhile to Get a College Degree?

CHAPTER 13 WORK AND VOCATION
MOTIVES FOR CHOICE
THEORIES OF VOCATIONAL CHOICE

Ginzberg’s Compromise with Reality Theory
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Developmental-Contextual Concepts
Holland’s Occupational Environment Theory
Lent ’s Social Cognitive Career Theory

PEOPLE INFLUENCING VOCATIONAL CHOICE
Parents

Peers
School Personnel
GENDER ROLES AND VOCATIONAL CHOICE
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Why So Few Women Scientists?

OTHER CRUCIAL DETERMINANTS OF VOCATIONAL CHOICE
Aptitudes and Special Abilities
Interests
CROSS-CULTURAL CONCERNS The School-to-Work   Transition for American versus European Adolescents
Job Opportunities
Salary
SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS
Familiarity
Social Status and Aspirations
In Their Own Words
Race/Ethnicity and Aspirations
YOUTH EMPLOYMENT
Working for Wages

RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Work, Military, or College?
Volunteerism
In Their Own Words
ADOLESCENTS AND UNEMPLOYMENT
Numbers of Unemployed Youths
Causes of Unemployment
CROSS-CULTURAL CONCERNS  International Perspectives on Youth Employment
CAREER EDUCATION


CHAPTER 14 ADOLESCENT STRESS AND ALIENATION
RUNNING AWAY

Classes of Runaways
Reasons for Running Away
PERSONAL ISSUES Preventing Teens from Running and Finding Them When They Do
Throwaways
Life on the Street
Help for Runaways
Worldwide Scope
DEPRESSION AND SUICIDE
Depression
Suicide
PERSONAL ISSUES Why Are Adolescent Girls More Likely to Be Depressed Than Adolescent Boys?
PERSONAL ISSUES Preventing Suicide
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT A Rapid Rise in Self-Mutilating Behavior
In Their Own Words
EATING DISORDERS
Anorexia Nervosa
Bulimia
JUVENILE DELINQUENCY
In Their Own Words

Incidence of Delinquency
Causes of Delinquency
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Conduct Disorder, ODD, and ADHD
Juvenile Gangs
The Juvenile Justice System
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT The Case That Changed Juvenile Court
The Restorative Justice Movement

CHAPTER 15 SUBSTANCE ABUSE, ADDICTION, AND DEPENDENCY
DRUG USE AND ABUSE
Physical Addiction and Psychological Dependency

Patterns and Intensity of Drug Use
Types of Drugs
PERSONAL ISSUES Ecstasy
Frequency of Adolescent Drug Use
Reasons for First Drug Use
Demographic Differences
Compulsive Drug Use
Prevention and Treatment
CROSS-CULTURAL CONCERNS Substance Use by Native American Adolescents
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Families of Drug Abusers
In Their Own Words
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Project DARE
TOBACCO AND SMOKING
Incidence of Tobacco Use
Reasons Adolescents Start Smoking
Effects of Cigarette Advertising
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT The Harmful Effects of Legal Drugs
Reasons Adolescents Continue Smoking
Smokeless Tobacco
Keeping Adolescents from Starting
ALCOHOL AND EXCESSIVE DRINKING
Incidence of Alcohol Use
Reasons for Drinking during Adolescence
PERSONAL ISSUES Drinking on College Campuses
Adult and Peer Influences
Physical Consequences of Alcohol Use
Drinking in Young Adulthood
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
PERSONAL ISSUES Adolescent Children of Alcoholic Parents

EPILOGUE

POSITIVE YOUTH DEVELOPMENT

 

EMERGING ADULTHOOD

 

YOUNG ADULTHOOD

GLOSSARY

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

PHOTO CREDITS

 

INDEX

– See more at: http://www.pearsonhighered.com/educator/product/Adolescent-The-Development-Relationships-and-Culture/9780205731367.page#sthash.xCcXO13g.dpuf

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